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Intramolecular bonds refers to the forces of attraction that hold atoms together within a molecule. These types of bonds are considerably stronger than intermolecular bonds. We will study three types of intramolecular bonds - covalent, ionic and metallic bonds.
Covalent Bonds:The animation above is a schematic depiction of what happens in the formation of a covalent bond. The individual atoms are atoms of chlorine with only their valence electrons shown. Note that each chlorine atom has only seven valence electrons, but really wants eight. When each chlorine atom shares its unpaired electron, both atoms are tricked into thinking each has a full valence of eight electrons. Notice that the individual atoms have full freedom from each other, but once the bond is formed, energy is released, and the new chlorine molecule (Cl2) behaves as a single particle.

A covalent bond is typically formed by two non-metals. Non-metals have similar electronegativities. Consequently, neither atom is "strong" enough to steal electrons from the other.Therefore, the atoms must share the electrons.

*A covalent bond exists when two electrons are shared by two non-metallic atoms.*
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