Edible salt (sodium chloride, sodium chloride)
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- In detail
Salt or chloride sodium is the white crystalline mineral substance which is found in the nature; it is dissolved in water; one of the few minerals which are eaten by people. Salt - the most ancient of spices.
Salinity - one of the main gustatory senses felt by the person (except salty flavor happens sweet, acid, bitter and minds ). Salt is required for human body, but the excessive use can increase risk of different diseases, including high blood pressure. Salt can be reduced by 20% - 45% without deterioration in taste. Salt is also used for preservation of products.
Throughout long centuries salt was valuable goods. Because of salt arranged wars, the states were formed and collapsed. At the end of the era of the Roman Empire and throughout all Middle Ages salt was valuable goods which were transported on "Salt roads" to the center of the German tribes. The cities, the states and principalities through which there passed "the salt way" assessed dealers in huge taxes for transportation of salt through their territory. It has laid the foundation to wars, and even became the reason for foundation of some cities, for example, of Munich in 1158.
Salt is extracted in two ways: mining and evaporation of sea water.
The chemical composition of different types of salt is identical - 99% of chloride sodium - but the structure of crystals changes strongly. The usual table salt consists of small kranut, kosher salt of much more uneven structure, more largely. For popcorn salt which is easily dissolved is used. Rock salt - big pieces of mineral, chloride sodium. Distinction in form and structure allows to achieve different taste and is useful to different dishes. Speed with which it is dissolved is also very important, and salt for pickles has to be very small to be dissolved even in cold liquid.
Sea salt which is done of sea water also happens different. Because of substances in water, at sea salt unique taste which is used in many kitchens.
Salt and health
Need for salt at the person and animals (herbivorous! ) it is connected with instinct. Salinity not accidentally therefore - one of four main feelings of taste at the person. Moreover, at the person, and especially at wild animals, the lack of salt perniciously affects their force and speed of reaction and, therefore, exerts impact on ability of animals to get food, and at the person - on its working capacity. However excess of salt in organism at its strengthened consumption is not less harmful - it causes different diseases. From here it is visible that the salt balance which is very fragile is necessary.
The person with salt deficit usually feels weakness and drowsiness, at long absence of salt dizziness, nausea, taste loss, sometimes full loss of gustatory senses develop.